Xiaolong Liu

Assistant Professor, Department of Physics & Astronomy

Assistant Professor, Department of Physics & Astronomy

435 Nieuwland Science Hall
Notre Dame, IN 46556
+1 574-631-6768

Research Interests

Our group is focused on the creation, manipulation, visualization, and understanding of novel quantum states of matter such as unconventional superconductivity. Experimentally, we implement scanning tunneling microscopy, scanned Josephson tunneling microscopy, and single atom/molecule manipulation at cryogenic temperatures.

Experimental Approaches

We utilize spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopes (SI-STM) that operate below 0.3 K in magnet fields up to 9 T with capabilities of in situ transport measurements. We perform experimental quantum simulation by crafting artificial structures via on-surface single atom/molecule manipulations. We synthesize and functionalize novel materials using in situ molecular beam epitaxy. We create 2D heterostructures using state-of-the-art fabrication techniques in inert environments.

Honors and Activities

2023 Ralph E. Powe Junior Faculty Enhancement Award, ORAU

2022 Blavatnik Regional Award for Young Scientists in the category of Physical Sciences & Engineering

2022 Young Scientist Prize in Low Temperature Physics by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP)


PhD, Northwestern University, 2018
BS, University of Science and Technology of China, 2013


Selected Publications

Q. Gu, J. P. Carroll, S. Wang, S. Ran, C. Broyles, H. Siddiquee, N. P. Butch, S. R. Saha, J. Paglione, J. C. Séamus Davis, and X. Liu, Detection of a pair density wave state in UTe2. Nature 618, 921–927 (2023).
X. Liu, Q. Li, Q. Ruan, B. I. Yakobson, and M. C. Hersam, Borophene synthesis beyond the single-atomic-layer Limit, Nat. Mater. 21, 35–40 (2022).

X. Liu, Y. X. Chong, R. Sharma, and J.C. Séamus Davis, Discovery of a Cooper-pair density wave state in a transition-metal dichalcogenide, Science 372, 1447-1452 (2021).

X. Liu, Y. X. Chong, R. Sharma, and J.C. Séamus Davis, Atomic-scale visualization of electron fluid flow, Nat. Mater. 20, 1480–1484 (2021).

X. Liu, M. C. Hersam, 2D materials for quantum information science, Nat. Rev. Mater. 4, 669–684 (2019) (Front Cover Article).

X. Liu, Z. Zhang, L. Wang, B. I. Yakobson, and M. C. Hersam, Intermixing and periodic self-assembly of borophene line defects, Nat. Mater. 17, 783–788 (2018).